The first surgeon to use oral mucosa as urethral replacement was Kirill Sapezhko, a surgeon from Ukraine [3,4]. Kirill M. Sapezhko (1857-1928), before beginning to use oral mucosa in his patients, performed experimental studies on animals and described five sequential phases relating to changes in the transplanted oral mucosa: imbibition, inosculation, mucosa dimness, graft cleansing, and complete engraftment . Sapezhko performed the first two-stage urethroplasty using lip mucosa as early as 1890. In the second case, in 1891, he performed a onestage tubularized lip mucosa graft. The third case in 1893 consisted of a one-stage tubed urethroplasty for traumatic stricture and a fourth case was later carried out . In 1902, the surgeon Thyrmos, who lived in Odessa and was a Kirill Sapezhko fellow and followed his technique using oral mucosa for urethroplasty, described a successful urethroplasty using oral mucosa .
These pioneering experiences coming from Eastern countries were not popularized and were kept out of the Western scientific community and literature until 2002 .